The same data showing the relation between eating breakfast and GPA presented via text, bar graph, line graph or scatter plot. Which depiction makes eating breakfast causing higher GPA seem more plausible to you?
Levels of support for the causal interpretation were not equally strong across visualization types.
People underestimate average positions of lines and overestimate average positions of bars.
“Perceptual pull” also diminishes or exaggerates the effect of underestimation and overestimation depending on the spatial arrangement of the data series.